Eye Trauma occurs when an injury or damage is caused by direct blow to the eye. It could damage the surrounding area of the eye like the bone structure or tissues surrounding the eye. Multiple damage could occur to several parts of the eye at the same time. A severe trauma could cause blindness or can resurface in the form of cataract, glaucoma or retinal detachment after some period. Eye trauma are most common in children, people working in hazardous conditions, certain sports etc.
Types of eye trauma:
The most common types are as listed below:
- Corneal Abrasions (when a scratch or injury occurs to the cornea)
- Chemical Injury or a chemical burns ( mainly injury caused by chemicals)
- Hyphema (blood in the anterior chamber of the eye)
- Fractures of the Orbit (the bony eye socket that surrounds the eye)
- Penetrating Injuries with embedded Foreign Bodies
- Eyelid lacerations (cuts to the eyelid)
- Black eye (bruising of surrounding eye tissues)
- Thermal Injury
- Traumaticiritis (inflammation of the iris of the eye due to eye trauma)
- Bruising (black eyes)
- Bruises to the eyelid and other surrounding areas
- Eye redness and swelling
- Bleeding between the cornea and iris, or area near the eye.
- Retinal detachment
- Blurred or cloudy vision
- Double vision or decreased vision
- Pain in the eye
- Changes in the shape of iris or pupil
The treatment depends on the severity of the injury. Minor eye traumas may just be fine with medications while others may require surgery depending on the case. Surgery could be performed with advanced microsurgical techniques. Continued follow up on the eye condition would be required. The treatment emphasizes mainly to protect vision, arrest infection and ensure speedy recovery.
Use of eye protective eyewear while undergoing activities that could likely cause damage to the eye like certain sports, welding or working in hazardous conditions like working with toxic chemicals that could affect the eye.
Common Tips in case of Eye Trauma
- In any case of any type of eye trauma, avoid rubbing of the eyes.
- Attempt should not be made to remove the penetrating particle by oneself. Entry of any foreign particle could scratch the cornea and cause infection and irritation.
- Not to apply any kind of pressure to the eye.
- Little children should be supervised while playing and sharp edged toys should be avoided.
- Avoid using cotton swabs or any material to take foreign particle directly from the eye by oneself.
- In case of any chemical injury, water flush may help.
- Proper implementation of first aid according to the type of eye trauma helps in the treatment.
- Do not touch the eye with unclean hands.
Eye injuries are mostly unexpected and accidental. Understanding the sensitivity of your eyes due care and precautions helps to safe guard them. Any type of eye trauma is a medical emergency and immediate medical attention must be given.
Every eye trauma poses a unique situation and may not be identical. Sometimes eye trauma may seem small but the internal damage could be severe and any delay could further worsen the condition.